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Textile fibres

HOW THE FABRIC IS CREATED

 

If we think about everyday life we can easily realize how fabrics are part of it on a large scale. This comes in the form of clothes, sheets for our beds, curtains to furnish our homes up to the coverings for the seats of our cars. When we buy a textile product we often don't pay attention to the fibers it is made of. This information, however, is fundamental from several points of view. It is not always easy to choose which fabric is best suited to our needs, but thanks to this brief overview we will learn to recognize the types of fibres, their texture and the various types of fabrics we usually wear.

There are many types of fabrics. They can be made on a loom or on a knitting machine; they can contain various fibers and, depending on the thickness of the yarn, give shape to more or less light fabrics or ones worked with specific designs.

But what is a fabric?

Technically we can define it as an article created on a loom where two or more yarns are woven. These yarns are called 'weft', if positioned horizontally, and 'warp', if arranged vertically. The weft threads, through the use of a spool, are passed between the warp threads and, depending on the pattern followed, this is how the different types of fabrics are born.

The weaves from which all the variations take shape are defined as 'weaves'. The most common are three:

Canvas

It occurs when each warp thread is intertwined with a weft thread, forming a perfect alternation as if it were the surface of a chessboard. It is the smallest and simplest weave that exists.

Twill or diagonal

This is the case in which the weft thread passes once over one warp thread, then over two, moving to the right or left and thus forming a diagonal intersection. Jeans are a classic example of this.

Satin

This time the weave between warp and weft is much wider and the binding points are thin. In this way, an obverse and reverse of the fabric is created, where the obverse side remains shiny because the light reflects without interruptions and the bindings are not visible.

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